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ASA Citation Format  
American Sociological Association

The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed to use "ASA style" when writing research papers. Consult the ASA Style Guide for additional or more detailed information (2 NORTH Reference  HM 73 .A54 1997). Also reference Your Research Paper for more examples.

Manuscript Format Citations in Text Footnotes and Endnotes
Bibliography (References) Books Journal Articles in Print
Newspaper and Magazine Articles in Print Electronic Format: Articles, Newspapers and Web Other

Manuscript Format

Citations in Text
Basic form for citations in the text includes the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific passages.
 If you are including the authorís name in your text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses:
Jelin (1977) indicates similar patterns for women in Argentina. 

If you are referring to an idea or theory but not citing the author  in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses:
Women also migrate to become involved in petty trade (Arizpe 1978)...

If citing two or more works by the same author:
According to William J. Wilson (1978, 1987) race and class play a significant role in today's society.
If citing works by several authors:
After the Civil Rights movement a growing number of racial/ethnic scholars such as Almaguer (1975), Barrera (1978), and Takaki (1979) challenged... 
The subjects of this study seemed to perform their duties as determined by the institutional arrangements within which they worked (Watson, Kumar, and Michaelsen 1993, Cox, Lobel, and McLoed 1991, Fitzgerald 1993). 

For three or more authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text; afterwards use the first name and et al.:
(Holland, Holt, Levi, and Beckett 1983)  thereafter (Holland et al. 1989)
Holland, Holt, Levi, and Beckett (1983) stated...   thereafter Holland et al. (1989) refer to...

Quotations in the text that begin and end with quotation marks, the citation follows the end quote mark and precedes the period:
"In 1999, however, the data were reported by more specific job types which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).
Cox stated, "The essence of the issue is reality vs. perception" (1993:132), as noted earlier.
Footnotes and Endnotes
Try to avoid footnotes, but if necessary, use footnotes to cite material of limited availability or to add information presented in a table. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the essay with superscript Arabic numerals and included at the bottom of the paper or in a separate section headed "Endnotes."

Bibliography (References) - refer to page ------ for additional format items:

Basic form for a book entry is 1) Authorís last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period. 2) Year of publication followed by a period. 3) Title of book italicized ending with a period. 4) Place of publication, followed by a colon and name of publisher ending with a period. 
One Author  
De Anda, Roberto M. 1995. Chicanas and Chicanos in Contemporary Society. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Two Authors
Herrera-Sobek, MarŪa and Helena MarŪa Viramontes. 1995. Chicana (W)rites: On Word and Film. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press.

Edited Book
Jelin, Elizabeth (ed). 1991. Family, household, and gender relations in Latin America. NY: Routledge, Chapman and Hall.

Chapter in Book
Ruiz, Vicki L. 1987. "Star struck: Acculturation, adolescence, and Mexican American women, 1920-1950." Pp. 333-354 in Small worlds: Children and adolescents in American, 1850-1950, edited by E. West and P. Petrik. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

No Author
Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Note: List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.

Journal Articles in Print
Basic form for a journal article is 1) Authorís last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial ending with a period. 2) Year of  publication followed by a period. 3) Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark. 4) Name of journal in italics 5) volume number followed by colon, page number(s) and period. Use the issue number following the volume number in parenthesis or exact date for journal article prior to the volume number for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.
Newspaper and Magazine Articles in Print
Basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry is 1) Authorís last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period. 2) Year of publication followed by a period. 3) Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark. 4) Name of newspaper/magazine in italics 5) date of publication followed by a comma 6) page number of article within the publication ending with a period.

Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the IT workforce grows more diverse, managers must improve awareness without creating inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.

Rimland, Bernard. 2000. "Do children's shots invite autism?" Los Angeles Times, April 26, A13.

Electronic Format: Articles, Newspapers, and Web

Commercial Databases
Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine" American Indian Law Review, 23:1. Retrieved May 25, 1999 Available: LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews.

Web Version of Newspapers
Clary, Mike. 2000. "Vieques Protesters Removed Without Incident." Los Angeles Times, May 5. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/updates/lat_vieques000505.htm).

Web Base Journals
Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?" Electronic Journal of Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.sociology.org/content/vol005.001/smith-nomi.html).

Information Posted on a Web Site
American Sociological Association. 2000. "Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Workshop." Washington, DC: American Sociological Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.asanet.org/members/socwkshp.html).


Government Documents
Since the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient  information so that the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the following:

United States. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. 1999. Rehab a home with HUD's 203(k): HUD and FHA are on your side. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

Dissertations and Theses
Valencia, Albert. 1995. "An examination of selected characteristics of Mexican-American battered women and implications for service providers." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA.

For other more information please see ASA Style Guide (2 NORTH Reference HM 73 .A54 1997).

Kathryn Blackmer Reyes, Rm. 3032 Ė 3rd floor University Library, blackmer@csus.edu , 916.278.7784 kbr/asa/11/06